In addition to the individual countries, it is necessary to examine separately how the European Union will accede to the agreement. The EU will probably have to act with its 28 Member States. In addition to each Member State which completes its national authorisation procedures, the Council of Ministers, with the agreement of the European Parliament, must also adopt a ratification decision. It could take a few years to ensure that the necessary effort-sharing agreements are in place between EU Member States. Current practice suggests that the EU and its Member States are likely to deposit their instruments of ratification at the same time. Under the Paris Agreement, each country must define, plan and report regularly on its contribution to the fight against global warming.  There is no mechanism for a country to set a specific emissions target by a specific date, but each target should go beyond the targets set previously. The United States officially withdrew from the agreement the day after the 2020 presidential election, although President-elect Joe Biden said America would join the agreement after his inauguration.  The Paris Agreement entered into force on 4 November 2016 after the condition of ratification by at least 55 countries, deprived of at least 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions, was met.
All EU countries have ratified the agreement. While the expanded transparency framework is universal, as is the global stocktaking that will take place every 5 years, the framework aims to provide “integrated flexibility” to distinguish the capacities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement contains provisions to improve the capacity-building framework.  The Agreement recognises the different circumstances of certain countries and notes, in particular, that the review of technical experts for each country takes into account that country`s specific reporting capacity.  The agreement also develops a transparency capacity building initiative to help developing countries put in place the institutions and processes needed to comply with the transparency framework.  NDCs become NDCs – Nationally Determined Contributions – once a country formally accedes to the Agreement. There are no specific requirements on how countries should reduce their emissions or to what extent, but there have been political expectations about the nature and severity of individual countries` targets. As a result, national plans vary considerably in scope and ambition, largely reflecting each country`s capacities, level of development and contribution to emissions over time. China, for example, has pledged to level its CO2 emissions by 2030 at the latest and reduce CO2 emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60 to 65 percent by 2030 compared to 2005 levels. India has set a target of reducing emissions intensity by 33-35% by 2005 by 2030 and producing 40% of its electricity from non-fossil sources.