The GATT 1947 initially applied to agriculture, but was incomplete, and the signatory States (or “Contracting Parties”) excluded this sector from the scope of the principles set out in the General Agreement. During the period 1947-1994, members were allowed to benefit from export subsidies on primary agricultural products and, under certain conditions, to impose import restrictions, so that major agricultural raw materials faced trade barriers to an unusual extent in other product sectors. The road to a fair and market-oriented agricultural trade system has therefore been difficult and long; and the negotiations were finally concluded during the Uruguay Round. Agriculture has been established in the WTO trade agreements and agreements (signed in 1994 and the 1st Special Status since the sector has a specific agreement, the Agreement on Agriculture, whose provisions are given priority. In addition, certain provisions of the Agreement on the Application of Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) also concern agricultural production and trade. The same applies to the Agreement on the Commercial Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) with regard to the protection of geographical names. In addition, the provisions of the Agreement on Agriculture are complemented by the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and technical assistance mechanisms. The CAP is also affected by agricultural concessions granted to a large number of countries under several multilateral and bilateral agreements, as well as unilateral derogations granted under the Generalised System of Preferences (GSP). These preferential agreements explain the high level of EU agricultural imports from developing countries (3.2.10, Table VI). These agreements include a degree of flexibility in implementation by both developing countries, WTO members (special and differential treatment) and least developed countries (LDCs) and net food-importing developing countries (specific provisions). In principle, all WTO agreements and arrangements on trade in goods apply to agriculture, including GATT 1994 and WTO agreements on issues such as customs valuation, import certificate procedures, preshipment inspections, early protection measures, subsidies and technical barriers to trade.
However, in the event of a conflict between these agreements and the Convention on Agriculture, priority shall be given to the provisions of the Agreement on Agriculture. Wto agreements on trade in services and trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights also apply to agriculture. The Uruguay Round of agricultural negotiations were not easy, as the scale of the negotiations and their political sensitivity necessarily called into question a great deal of time to reach agreement on the new rules and it took a great deal of technical work to put in place solid means to formalise commitments in policy areas that go beyond previous GATT practice. The Agreement on Agriculture and the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures were negotiated in parallel and a decision on measures to be taken regarding the potential negative effects of the reform programme on least developed and net food-importing developing countries was also part of the overall outcome. Introduction to agricultural trade in the WTO Links to the agricultural part of the WTO guide “Understanding the WTO” The 2003 CAP reform, which decoupled most of the existing direct aid, and the sectoral reforms that followed led to the postponement of most of the aid under the yellow box and the blue box in the green box (€61.6 billion in 2016/2017, see table below). Aid granted under the “Amber Box” (AMS or Aggregate Measurement of Support) has fallen sharply, from €81 billion at the beginning of the contract period to €6.9 billion for the period 2016-2017, even with successive waves of enlargement. . .