“And yet, despite his ouster by decisions as unfortunate as Urofsky, Garcetti and Hong, the traditional form of academic freedom still exists, misunderstood and threatened, as it may be. It exists because of two practices that protect the security of employment and the institutional authority of university and university professors: the mandate and management of faculties. It also exists because of the procedural safeguards that surround these practices… My own experience proves the value of my mandate. As a historian who wants to get closer to the highest professional standards while trying to contribute in one way or another to the cause of freedom and social justice, I am considered in some quarters to be a controversial figure. However, I would be severely disabled in my job if I was constantly worried about losing my job because of something I wrote or said… Tenure is also the mechanism by which institutions create a protected space where university and university professors can practice their profession without worrying that an unpopular or imorthodox company could jeopardize their careers. In practical terms, it creates an economically secure cohort of high-level faculty members who can defend (and sometimes do) the quality of American education and the ability of their colleagues to teach, research and express themselves as citizens, without fear of institutional reprisals. It is at least the idealized version of the relationship between mandate and academic freedom. Concession agreements generally define operating time, insurance requirements and royalties. Payments to a landowner may include location rent, a percentage of turnover, or a combination of the two.
Additional expectations may also be set out in the agreement. The agreement may specify, for example. B, which of the parties is responsible for procurement, maintenance and repair services. At best, concession agreements are a form of outsourcing that allows all parties to benefit from comparative advantages. Often, a country or company has resources that lack the knowledge or capital to use it effectively. By outsourcing the development or exploitation of these resources to others, it is possible to earn more than they could on their own. For example, a country may lack capital and technical capacity to exploit offshore oil reserves. A concession contract with an oil multinational can generate income and jobs for that country.